The Armenian Highland is the birthplace of one of the oldest nations of the world, the Armenians who created the present day Republic of Armenia which is a sovereign, democratic, social and legal state. The Republic of Armenia is situated in the South Caucasus region of Asia. Armenia has a landlocked and mountainous area. It is bordered by Turkey to the west, Georgia to the north, Iran to the south, Azerbaijan to the east, and Azerbaijan’s Naxcivan exclave to the southwest. The land of Armenia is mountainous and wooded. It also has high plateaus totally voided of trees. The land rises to 4,090 meters above sea-level at Mount Aragats, and no point is below 390 meters above sea level. Though the total area of the country is 29,800 square kilometers (11,505 square miles) the mountain passes, valleys and canyons make it feel much larger. All the area is very rich with different kinds of plants and animals. One can find here more than 3200 types of plants, 120 out of which grow only in Armenia, and 12000 types of animals part of which can also be found only in Armenia. Armenia is very rich in mountains and mountain ranges. Geghama mountains with the highest pick Azhdahak(3597.3m above sea level), Aragats mountain (4,090m above sea level), must be specially noted. Lake Sevan is the largest lake in Armenia and the Caucasus region. It is one of the largest fresh-water high-altitude lakes in the world. Lake Sevan is situated in the central part of the Republic of Armenia, inside the Gegharkunik Province, at the altitude of 1,900m above sea level. The total surface area of its basin is about 5,000 km2, the lake itself is 940 km2, and the volume is 34.0 bln cubic meters. It is fed by 28 rivers and streams. Only 10% of the outgoing water is drained by the Hrazdan (Razdan) river, while the remaining 90% evaporates. Sevan trout (Salmo ischchan) is an endemic species of the lake. Armenians as well as visitors from abroad like the taste of this fish.
Armenia not only has rich natural treasures but it also have a very rich history and culture. Nourished by their homeland and endowed with the blessing of nature Armenians enriched the Armenian Highland with countless examples of men’s creative mind by building their cultural heritage that dates as far back as times of worship of Nature and ancient Gods, and reaches the Christian era. This land of Armenia withstood many assaults and wars but Armenians managed to save their land and culture. Unlike the hordes of Romans, Arabs, Mongols and Persians all of which eventually freed the Armenian homeland from their presence only Turks did not returns to where they had come from. Due to some historical events and circumstances, today most of Armenian Homeland, once occupying 400 000 square kilometers , now falls outside the border of the present day Republic of Armenia.